Spiegel D; Bloom JR; Kraemer HC; Gottheil E
Effect of psychosocial treatment on survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer.
Lancet, 1989 Oct 14, 2(8668):888-91.
Abstract: The effect of psychosocial intervention on time of survival of 86 patients with metastatic breast cancer
was studied prospectively. The 1-year intervention consisted of weekly supportive group therapy with self-hypnosis
for pain. Both the treatment (n = 50) and control groups (n = 36) had routine oncological care. At 10-year follow-up,
only 3 of the patients were alive, and death records were obtained for the other 83. Survival from time of randomisation
and onset of intervention was a mean 36.6 (SD 37.6) months in the intervention group compared with 18.9 (10.8)
months in the control group, a significant difference. Survival plots indicated that divergence in survival began
at 20 months after entry, or 8 months after intervention ended.
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Facilitating emotional coping during treatment
Cancer, 66:1422-6, 1990
Abstract: Patient resources for coping with breast cancer can be enhanced by attention to cognitive, affective,
psychosomatic, and social components of the illness. The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer constitutes an
immediate confrontation with mortality, and sympathetic but direct examination of the patient's vulnerability and
means of coping with it will reduce rather than amplify death anxiety. The development and pursuit of realistic
goals influenced by the prognosis can help patients adjust constructively. Extremes of emotion are to be expected
at times, but persistent depression and/or anxiety should be vigorously treated, including the use of appropriate
psychoactive medication when the symptoms are primarily somatic (e.g., sleep disturbance and reductions in energy).
Physical symptoms such as pain, nausea, and vomiting can be controlled by teaching patients such techniques as
self-hypnosis, biofeedback, and systemic desensitization. Finally, a feeling of social isolation is the rule, not
the exception, with cancer patients. Group and family treatment can effectively counter this. Systematic studies
of such treatment interventions have shown favorable results, including significant reductions in mood disturbance
Spiegel D; Sands S; Koopman C
Pain and depression in patients with cancer.
Cancer, 74(9):2570-2578, 1994
BACKGROUND. Although the existence of a relationship between depression and pain in patients with cancer has been
known for many years, the influence of one upon the other is still poorly understood. It has been thought that
depressed individuals complain of pain more because of their psychiatric illness. Evidence from two studies indicate
that pain may induce clinical depression.
METHODS. In the first study, the authors examined both current and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses among patients
with cancer who had high and low pain symptoms to examine the strength of the relationship between depression and
cancer pain. The sample consisted of 72 women and 24 men, with 39 women and 9 men in the high pain group, and 33
women and 15 men in the low pain group. In the second study, 35 patients with metastatic carcinoma of the breast
were examined for pain intensity and frequency and mood disturbance.
RESULTS. The prevalence of depressive disorders of all types was found to be significantly higher in the high pain
than in the low pain group across measures, 33 versus 13% (chi-square [degrees of freedom = 1] = 5.90, P < 0.05).
Furthermore, there was a significantly higher history of major depression in the low pain group than in the high
pain group (chi-square [degrees of freedom = 1] = 3.86, P < 0.05). Also, in comparison with patients in the
low pain group, patients in the high pain group were significantly more anxious and emotionally distressed. In
the second study, pain intensity correlated significantly with fatigue, vigor, and total mood disturbance, and
pain frequency correlated significantly with fatigue, vigor, and depression.
CONCLUSIONS. This study confirms the high concomitant occurrence of pain and psychiatric morbidity and suggests
that pain may play a causal role in producing depression.
Health caring. Psychosocial support for patients with cancer.
Cancer, 74(4):1453-1456, August 15, 1994
Abstract: Psychosocial treatments, including group, individual, and family therapies, are of proven efficacy
and deserve inclusion as standard components of biomedical treatment for patients with cancer. Four issues regarding
such treatment are reviewed. The first is need. Significant anxiety and depression are common (and treatable) problems
among the medically ill and represent a major aspect of the burden of illness. Even those with less severe emotional
reactions need help coping with the stress of serious illness. The second is methods. Psychotherapy, both group
and individual, provides valuable emotional and social support and teaches important symptom management skills.
The third is outcome. Psychotherapy has been shown to be effective in improving quality of life and enhancing the
ability of the medically ill to cope with their illness. Results of various psychotherapies include reducing depression
and anxiety, improving coping skills, and in some cases, extending survival time. The fourth is cost offset. Appropriate
psychotherapeutic intervention saves money by reducing unnecessary office visits, diagnostic tests, medical procedures,
and hospital admittance.
Essentials of psychotherapeutic intervention for cancer patients.
Support Care Cancer 3252-256, 1995
Abstract: Psychosocial treatments, including group, individual and family psychotherapies, are of proven efficacy,
and deserve inclusion as standard components of biomedical treatment for cancer patients. Anxiety and depression
are very common (and treatable) problems among cancer patients, most of whom can benefit from intervention. Psychotherapy,
both group and individual, employs three fundamental approaches: emotional expression, social support, and cognitive
symptom-management skills. Psychotherapy has been shown to be effective in improving quality of life. Results of
studies of various psychotherapies include reduction in depression, anxiety, and pain, and improved coping skills,
and, in some cases, there is evidence of extended survival time.
Spiegel D; Kato PM
Psychosocial influences on cancer incidence and progression.
Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 4(1):10-26, 1996
Abstract: The impact of psychosocial factors on the incidence and progression of cancer has become an area that
demands attention. In this article recent evidence of psychosocial effects on cancer incidence and progression
is reviewed in the context of past research. Psychosocial factors discussed include personality, depression, emotional
expression, social support, and stress. Mechanisms that could mediate the relationship between psychosocial conditions
and cancer incidence and progression are also reviewed. These include alterations in diet, exercise, and circadian
cycles; variations in medical treatment received; and physiological mechanisms such as psychoendocrinologic and
psychoneuroimmunologic effects. We conclude that there is a nonrandom relationship among various psychosocial factors
and cancer incidence and progression that can only partially be explained by behavioral, structural, or biological
factors. Suggestions for future research are discussed.
Psychosocial aspects of breast cancer treatment.
Seminars in Oncology 24(1), Suppl 1 (February):S1-36-S1-47, 1997
Abstract: Social stress, psychological distress, and psychosocial support effect the adjustment of breast cancer
patients, influence their experience of and adherence to medical treatment, and may effect the course of the disease.
The literature indicates that levels of distress, depression, and anxiety are su bstantially elevated among patients
with breast cancer. These problems persist in a sizable minority of patients even years after diagnosis. Coping
styles are related to adjustment and, in some studies, survival time. The nature of the relationship with physicians
affects adjustment to the illness, satisfaction with treatment outcome, and adherence to medical treatment protocols,
which can influence relapse and survival. In many but not all studies, serious life stress adversely affects medical
outcome. Social support in general and structured psychotherapy in particular have been shown to positively affect
both adjustment and survival time. Clear and open communication, expression of appropriate emotion, and collaborative
planning and problem-solving enhance adjustment and improve outcome. Conversely, influences that isolate breast
cancer patients from others or undermine support can have adverse medical and psychological consequences.
Kogan MM; Biswas A; Pearl D; Carlson R; Spiegel D
Effects of medical and psychotherapeutic treatment on the survival of women with metastatic breast carcinoma.
Cancer, 80(2): 225-230, 1997.
BACKGROUND: The authors previously reported a statistically significant
effect of psychosocial intervention on survival time of women with
metastatic breast carcinoma. In this study, the authors investigated
whether this effect could be explained by differences in the medical
treatment patients received subsequent to their group participation or
differences in causes of death.
METHODS: Of the original 86 study
participants, medical treatment charts for 61 and death certificates for
83 were available for further analysis. The authors reviewed the course
of the medical treatment they received subsequent to their entry into the
randomized psychotherapy trial.
RESULTS: Although there were no
statistically significant differences with regard to chemotherapy and
hormone therapy between the control and treatment groups, women in the
control group tended to have received more adrenalectomies, although this
procedure did not account for the difference in survival time between the
control group and the treatment group. Furthermore, women in the control
group developed more bone and lung metastases than the women in the
CONCLUSIONS: Differences in disease course between the
control and treatment groups appeared to be independent of any
differences in medical treatment received.
Spiegel D; Stroud P; Fyfe A
Western Journal of Medicine, 4(168):241-247, 1998
Abstract: The widespread use of complementary and alternative medicine techniques, often explored by patients
without discussion with their primary care physician, is seen as a request from patients for care as well as cure.
In this article, we discuss the reasons for the growth of and interest in complementary and alternative medicine
in an era of rapidly advancing medical technology. There is, for instance, evidence of the efficacy of supportive
techniques such as group psychotherapy in improving adjustment and increasing survival time of cancer patients.
We describe current and developing complementary medicine programs as well as opportunities for integration of
some complementary techniques into standard medical care.
Koopman C; Hermanson K; Diamond S; Angell K; Spiegel D
Social support, life stress, pain and emotional adjustment to advanced breast cancer.
Psycho-Oncology. 7(2): 101-111, 1998.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between emotional
adjustment to advanced breast cancer, pain, social support, and life
stress. The cross-sectional sample was compromised of 102 women with
metastatic and/or recurrent breast cancer who were recruited into a
randomized psychosocial intervention study. All women completed baseline
questionnaires assessing demographic and medical variables, social
support, life stress, pain, and mood disturbance. Three types of social
support were assessed: (1) number of persons in support system; (2)
positive support; and (3) aversive support. On the Profile of Mood States
(POMS) total score, we found significant interactions between life stress
and social support; having more people in the patient's support system
was associated with less mood disturbance, but only among patients who
had undergone greater life stress. Also, aversive social contact was
significantly related to total mood disturbance (POMS), and having more
aversive social contact was particularly associated with total mood
disturbance (POMS) among patients who had undergone greater life stress.
Pain intensity was associated with greater total life stress, and was not
significantly related to social support. These results are consistent
with the 'buffering hypothesis' that social support may shield women with
metastatic breast cancer from the effects of previous life stress on
their emotional adjustment; however, aversive support may be an
additional source of life stress associated with emotional distress.
Also, pain is greater among women with greater life stress, regardless of
Spiegel D; Cardena E
Disintegrated experience: the dissociative disorders revisited
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100:366-378, 1991
Abstract: We present proposed changes to the dissociative disorders section of the 4th edition of the Diagnostic
and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and review the concept of pathological and nonpathological dissociation,
including empirical findings on the relations between trauma and dissociative phenomenology and between dissociation
and hypnosis. The most important proposals include the creation of two new diagnostic entities, brief reactive
dissociative disorder and transient dissociative disturbance, and the readoption of the criterion of amnesia for
a multiple personality disorder diagnosis. We conclude that further work on dissociative processes will provide
an important link between clinical and experimental approaches to human cognition, emotion, and personality.
Cardena E; Spiegel D
Dissociative reactions to the San Francisco Bay Area earthquake of 1989
American Journal of Psychiatry, 150(3):474-478, 1993.
OBJECTIVE: This study systematically evaluated the psychological reactions of a nonclinical population to the October
1989 earthquake in the San Francisco Bay Area.
METHOD: A representative group of about 100 graduate students from two different institutions in the Bay Area volunteered
to participate in the study. Within 1 week of the earthquake, the authors administered a checklist of anxiety and
dissociative symptoms to the subjects, and 4 months later they conducted a follow-up study with the same checklist.
RESULTS: The participants reported significantly greater numbers and frequency of dissociative symptoms, including
derealization and depersonalization, distortions of time, and alterations in cognition, memory and somatic sensations,
during or shortly after the earthquake than after 4 months. To a lesser degree they also reported significantly
more nonsomatic anxiety symptoms and Schneider's first-rank symptoms at the earlier testing time.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that among nonclinical populations, extreme distress may significantly increase
the prevalence and severity of transient dissociative phenomena and anxiety. They provide further evidence of the
role that dissociation plays in the response to trauma and are of considerable clinical and theoretical importance
in view of the lifetime prevalence of traumatic experiences in the general population.
Classen C; Koopman C; Spiegel D
Trauma and dissociation
Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 57(2):178-194, 1993.
Abstract: The stress associated with experiencing or witnessing physical trauma can cause abrupt and marked
alterations in mental state, including anxiety and transient dissociative symptoms. Intense manifestations of this
pattern of response to trauma are described in a new diagnostic category proposed for DSM-IV: acute stress disorder.
Severe dissociative symptoms may predict subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder. Persons who experience a series
of traumatic events may be especially vulnerable to a variety of dissociative states, including amnesia, fugue,
depersonalization, and multiple personality disorder. Treatment for these symptoms emphasizes strengthening supportive
interpersonal relationships and developing insight that reduces psychological pain by integrating the trauma into
a meaningful, less self-blaming perspective.
Koopman C; Classen C; Spiegel D
Predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms among survivors of the Oakland/Berkeley, Calif., firestorm
American Journal of Psychiatry, 15(6)888-894, June 1994.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine factors predicting the development of posttraumatic stress
symptoms after a traumatic event, the 1991 Oakland/Berkeley firestorm. The major predictive factors of interest
were dissociative, anxiety, and loss of personal autonomy symptoms reported in the immediate aftermath of the fire;
contact with the fire; and life stressors before and after the fire.
METHOD: Subjects were recruited from several sources so that they would vary in their extent of contact with the
fire. Of 187 participants who completed self-report measures about their experiences in the aftermath of the firestorm,
154 completed a follow-up assessment. Of these 154 subjects, 97% completed the follow-up questionnaires 7-9 months
after the fire. The questionnaires included measures of posttraumatic stress and life events since the fire.
RESULTS: Dissociative and loss of personal autonomy symptoms experienced in the fire's immediate aftermath, as
well as stressful life experiences occurring later, significantly predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms measured
7-9 months after the firestorm by a civilian version of the Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related Posttraumatic
Stress Disorder and the Impact of Event Scale. Dissociative symptoms more strongly predicted posttraumatic symptoms
than did anxiety and loss of personal autonomy symptoms. Intrusive thinking differs from other kinds of posttraumatic
symptoms in being related directly to the trauma and previous stressful life events.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that dissociative symptoms experienced in the immediate aftermath of a traumatic
experience and subsequent stressful experiences are indicative of risk for the later development of posttraumatic
stress symptoms. Such measures may be useful as screening procedures for identifying those most likely to need
clinical care to help them work through their reactions to the traumatic event and to subsequent stressful experiences.
Spiegel D; Scheflin AW
Dissociated or fabricated? Psychiatric aspects of repressed memory in criminal and civil cases.
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 42(4):411-432, October 1994
Abstract: During the last decade, clinicians, courts, and researchers have been faced with exceedingly difficult
questions involving the crossroads where memory, traumatic memory, dissociation, repression, childhood sexual abuse,
and suggestion all meet. In one criminal case, repressed memories served as the basis for a conviction of murder.
In approximately 50 civil cases, courts have ruled on the issue of whether repressed memory for childhood sexual
abuse may form the basis of a suit against the alleged perpetrators. Rulings that have upheld such use underscore
the importance of the reliability of memory retrieval techniques. Hypnosis and other methodologies employed in
psychotherapy may be beneficial in working through memories of trauma, but they may also distort memories or alter
a subject's evaluation of their veracity. Because of the reconstructive nature of memory, caution must be taken
to treat each case on its own merits and avoid global statements essentially proclaiming either that repressed
memory is always right or that it is always wrong.
Koopman C; Classen C; Cardena E; Spiegel D
When disaster strikes, acute stress disorder may follow.
Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8(1)29-46, 1995.
Abstract: During and immediately following a traumatic event, people may manifest a pattern of dissociative
and anxiety symptoms and other reactions, referred to as Acute Stress Disorder. A review of the empirical literature
on psychological reactions to trauma suggests that this pattern of symptoms has often been identified across different
kinds of traumatic events. It is likely to constitute a psychological adaptation to a stressful event, limiting
painful thoughts and feelings associated with the event and allowing the person to function at least minimally.
Continuation of these symptoms, however, may impair the person's quality of life and disrupt social and other functioning.
If symptoms last beyond a month following the traumatic event, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) may ensue,
continuing for months or even years after the precipitating event. Hence, it is important to be able to identify
this pattern of reactions that may be manifested in reaction to trauma, so that appropriate intervention can be
provided. Although it was not officially recognized in the 3rd edition Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-III-R),
Acute Stress Disorder is included as a separate diagnosis in the DSM-IV.
Gabbard GO; Lazar SG; Hornberger J; Spiegel D
The economic impact of psychotherapy: a review.
American Journal of Psychiatry, 154(2):147-155, 1997
OBJECTIVE: The authors reviewed data involving the impact of providing psychotherapy for psychiatric disorders
on costs of care.
METHOD: In a search of the MEDLINE database limited to peer-reviewed papers published from 1984 through 1994, 686
articles were identified. Forty-one articles, covering 35 studies, were found in which the intervention tested
was psychotherapeutic and the study included measures of outcome that had some implications for cost. The exclusion
criteria for reviewing these studies included absence of a comparison group, a focus on medical disorders instead
of psychiatric illnesses, and outcomes that did not include cost data or measures from which costs could be inferred.
On this basis, 18 of the 35 studies were selected for analysis. The studies were categorized according to whether
or not subjects were randomly assigned to study groups. Two reviewers independently read each study to identify
the following characteristics: inclusion criteria, exclusion criteria, types of interventions, main outcome variables,
sample size, and statistical tests for significant differences between treatments. Outcomes had to include actual
cost accounting or data on medical care utilization or work functioning.
RESULTS: The findings of eight (80%) of the 10 clinical trials with random assignment and all eight (100%) of the
studies without random assignment suggested that psychotherapy reduces total costs.
CONCLUSIONS: Psychotherapy appears to have a beneficial impact on a variety of costs when used in the treatment
of the most severe psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, and borderline personality
disorder. Much of that impact accrues from reductions in inpatient treatment and decreases in work impairment.
Classen C; Koopman C; Hales R; Spiegel D
Acute stress disorder as a predictor of posttraumatic stress symptoms.
American Journal of Psychiatry, 155(5):650-624, 1998.
OBJECTIVE: Using the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for acute stress disorder, the authors examined whether the acute
psychological effects of being a bystander to violence involving mass shootings in an office building predicted
later posttraumatic stress symptoms.
METHOD: The participants in this study were 36 employees working in an office building where a gunman shot 14 persons
(eight fatally). The acute stress symptoms were assessed within 8 days of the event, and posttraumatic stress symptoms
of 32 employees were assessed 7 to 10 months later.
RESULTS: According to the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire, 12 (33%) of the employees met criteria
for the diagnosis of acute stress disorder. Acute stress symptoms were found to be an excellent predictor of the
subjects' posttraumatic stress symptoms 7-10 months after the traumatic event.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest not only that being a bystander to violence is highly stressful in the short
run, but that acute stress reactions to such an event further predict later posttraumatic stress symptoms.
Spiegel D; Hunt T; Dondershine HE
Dissociation and hypnotizability in posttraumatic stress disorder
American Journal of Psychiatry, 145:301-305, 1988
Abstract: The authors compared the hypnotizability of 65 Vietnam veteran patients with posttraumatic stress
disorder (PTSD) to that of a normal control group and four patient samples using the Hypnotic Induction Profile.
The patients with PTSD had significantly higher hypnotizability scores than patients with diagnoses of schizophrenia
(N = 23); major depression, bipolar disorder--depressed, and dysthymic disorder (N = 56); and generalized anxiety
disorder (N = 18) and the control sample (N = 83). This finding supports the hypothesis that dissociative phenomena
are mobilized as defenses both during and after traumatic experiences. The literature suggests that spontaneous
dissociation, imagery, and hypnotizability are important components of PTSD symptoms.
Spiegel D; Bierre P; Rootenberg J.
Hypnotic alteration of somatosensory perception.
American Journal of Psychiatry, 1989 Jun, 146(6):749-54.
Abstract: Effects of hypnotic alterations of perception on amplitude of somatosensory event-related potentials
were studied in 10 highly hypnotizable subjects and 10 subjects with low hypnotizability. The highly hypnotizable
individuals showed significant decreases in amplitude of the P100 and P300 waveform components during a hypnotic
hallucination that blocked perception of the stimulus. When hypnosis was used to intensify attention to the stimulus,
there was an increase in P100 amplitude. These findings are consistent with observations that highly hypnotizable
individuals can reduce or eliminate pain by using purely cognitive methods such as hypnosis. Together with data
from the visual system, these results suggest a neurophysiological basis for hypnotic sensory alteration.
Klein KB; Spiegel D.
Modulation of gastric acid secretion by hypnosis.
Gastroenterology, 1989 Jun, 96(6):1383-7.
Abstract: The ability of hypnosis to both stimulate and inhibit gastric acid secretion in highly hypnotizable
healthy volunteers was examined in two studies. In the first, after basal acid secretion was measured, subjects
were hypnotized and instructed to imagine all aspects of eating a series of delicious meals. Acid output rose from
a basal mean of 3.60 +/- 0.48 to a mean of 6.80 +/- 0.02 mmol H+/h with hypnosis, an increase of 89% (p = 0.0007).
In a second study, subjects underwent two sessions of gastric analysis in random order, once with no hypnosis and
once under a hypnotic instruction to experience deep relaxation and remove their thoughts from hunger. When compared
to the no-hypnosis session, with hypnosis there was a 39% reduction in basal acid output (4.29 +/- 0.93 vs. 2.60
+/- 0.44 mmol H+/h, p less than 0.05) and an 11% reduction in pentagastrin-stimulated peak acid output (28.69 +/-
2.34 vs. 25.43 +/- 2.98 mmol H+/h, p less than 0.05). We have shown that different cognitive states induced by
hypnosis can promote or inhibit gastric acid production, processes clearly controlled by the central nervous system.
Hypnosis offers promise as a safe and simple method for studying the mechanisms of such central control.
Spiegel D; Cardena E
New uses of hypnosis in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 51:10 (suppl):39-43, (Discuss.) 44-6, 1990.
Abstract: Hypnosis is associated with the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for two reasons:
(1) the similarity between hypnotic phenomena and the symptoms of PTSD, and (2) the utility of hypnosis as a tool
in treatment. Physical trauma produces a sudden discontinuity in cognitive and emotional experience that often
persists after the trauma is over. This results in symptoms such as psychogenic amnesia, intrusive reliving of
the event as if it were recurring, numbing of responsiveness, and hypersensitivity to stimuli. Two studies have
shown that Vietnam veterans with PTSD have higher than normal hypnotizability scores on standardized tests. Likewise,
a history of physical abuse in childhood has been shown to be strongly associated with dissociative symptoms later
in life. Furthermore, dissociative symptoms during and soon after traumatic experience predict later PTSD. Formal
hypnotic procedures are especially helpful because this population is highly hypnotizable. Hypnosis provides controlled
access to memories that may otherwise be kept out of consciousness. New uses of hypnosis in the psychotherapy of
PTSD victims involve coupling access to the dissociated traumatic memories with positive restructuring of those
memories. Hypnosis can be used to help patients face and bear a traumatic experience by embedding it in a new context,
acknowledging helplessness during the event, and yet linking that experience with remoralizing memories such as
efforts at self-protection, shared affection with friends who were killed, or the ability to control the environment
at other times. In this way, hypnosis can be used to provide controlled access to memories that are then placed
into a broader perspective. Patients can be taught self-hypnosis techniques that allow them to work through traumatic
memories and thereby reduce spontaneous unbidden intrusive recollections.
Spiegel D; Frischholz EJ; Fleiss JL; Spiegel H
Predictors of smoking abstinence following a single-session restructuring intervention with self-hypnosis.
American Journal of Psychiatry, 1993 Jul, 150(7):1090-7.
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relation of smoking and medical history, social support, and hypnotizability
to outcome of a smoking cessation program.
METHOD: A consecutive series of 226 smokers referred for the smoking cessation program were treated with a single-session
habit restructuring intervention involving self-hypnosis. They were then followed up for 2 years. Total abstinence
from smoking after the intervention was the criterion for successful outcome.
RESULTS: Fifty-two percent of the study group achieved complete smoking abstinence 1 week after the intervention;
23% maintained their abstinence for 2 years. Hypnotizability and having been previously able to quit smoking for
at least a month significantly predicted the initiation of abstinence. Hypnotizability and living with a significant
other person predicted 2-year maintenance of treatment response.
CONCLUSIONS: These results, while modest, are superior to those of spontaneous efforts to stop smoking. Furthermore,
they suggest that it is possible to predict which patients are most likely and which are least likely to respond
to such brief smoking cessation interventions.
Jasiukaitis P; Nouriani B; Hugdahl K; Spiegel D
Relateralizing hypnosis: or, have we been barking up the wrong
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 1997 Apr;45(2):158-77.
Research and theory over the past couple decades have suggested that the
right cerebral hemisphere might be the focus of brain activity during
hypnosis. Recent evidence from electrodermal responding, visual
event-related potentials, and Stroop interference, however, can make a
case for a role of the left hemisphere in some hypnotic phenomena.
Although hemispheric activation on hypnotic challenge may depend in large
part on the kind of task the challenge might involve, several general
aspects of hypnosis might be more appropriately seen as left- rather than
right-hemisphere brain functions. Among these are concentrated
attentional focus and the role of language in the establishment of
hypnotic reality. A left-hemisphere theory of hypnosis is discussed in
light of recent findings and theories about a left-hemisphere basis for
synthetic or generational capabilities (Corballis, 1991) and a
neuro-evolutionary model of a left-hemisphere dopaminergic activation
system for the implementation of predetermined motor programs (Tucker &